Tissue Engineering



Cell Biology

Cells are the building blocks of human tissues and organs. Pandorum has the abilities to extract and culture human cells in-vitro, assess their functionalities, coax cells to acquire stemness and to differentiate into desired lineages, modify their genetic makeup, induce diseases and so on.

Cell Biology


Human cells grow in an extracellular matrix (ECM), largely composed of elastin, collagen, GAGs, and other factors.  ECM provides various cues that guide cellular organization, migration, differentiation etc. Pandorum has developed a proprietary library of modular and tunable ECM-mimetic bio-polymers. These ECM mimetic bio-polymers can form hydrogels via crosslinking  under visible light, and are suitable for 3D bio-printing, tissue engineering and drug delivery.

Bio Materials

Additive Manufacturing

Additive Manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, allows manufacturing of physical objects directly from digital data, and significantly relaxes the design constraints imposed by traditional manufacturing techniques. Cells grown in 3D exhibit improved cell morphology and cell-cell communication, similar to that of native human tissues, are far superior in functionalities that cells grown on a 2D surface.

Additive Manufacturing


Micro-fluidic systems allow culture of human cells/ tissues under physiologically relevant dynamic conditions. It also allows connecting tissues/organoids, and move towards human-on-chip platforms.

Micro Fluidics


The manufactured human tissues are subject to extensive characterization and functional assessment via state of art techniques such as microscopy, spectroscopy, histo-pathology, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics etc. These human tissues are intended for pre-clinical medical research and clinical therapeutics.


Human Liver Tissue


  • Pandorum’s artificial 3D liver tissue (organoid) efficiently recapitulates human liver tissue at the structural and functional level.
  • Possesses critical liver functions such as production of albumin, cholesterol, and inducible cytochrome P450 enzymatic activities (such as CYP1A2 and CYP3A4).
  • Response to drugs and toxins is more human-like than 2D cell culture and animal models.
  • These living mini-liver tissues are viable and stable for more than 4 weeks in vitro, compared to 5-7 days for conventional 2D cell culture.